Carpooling and Drivers without Household Vehicles: Gender Disparity in Automobility among Hispanics in the U.S.


Personal-level automobility is critical for accessing economic and social opportunities in an auto-oriented built environment such as the U.S. Household carpooling is the most popular alternative mode for solo-driving regardless of demographic group because it provides a certain degree of automobility, yet, carpool-dependent passengers often suffer from practical and other disadvantages. This paper explores the gender gap in personal-level automobility, particularly among Hispanics, with explicit consideration to drivers' access to household vehicles and non-drivers' access to household carpooling. The research finds that Hispanic females, especially immigrants, are low in automobility, both in the probability of being a driver and in access to household vehicles. The gender gap is specific to Hispanics, and not found for non-Hispanic Whites or Blacks. The gap decreases, but persists, as immigrant Hispanics stay longer in the U.S., gain or maintain employment, or become college-educated. Surprisingly, the gender gap in personal-level automobility exists even among U.S. native Hispanics.


Mobility, Automobility, Hispanics, Gender, Immigrants, Carpool


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